Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2020 Feb;157(2):218-227. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2019.03.024.
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the vestibular anatomy of teeth in samples of adult Italian and Mozambican subjects in ideal occlusion and permanent dentition and identify any anatomic characteristics that may influence bonding in the straight-wire technique.
METHODS: Linear measurements and coordinates of each curve representing the clinical crown height and width of each tooth were acquired from digital models of each subject categorized to 1 of 2 groups: Italian (18 males, 22 females; mean age, 29.6 ± 5.7 years) or Mozambican (14 males, 15 females; mean age, 23.4 ± 5.9 years). All subjects had normal dentition and no previous orthodontic treatment, fillings, or prostheses. Method error and systematic error were calculated according to the Dahlberg formula (S2 = ∑ d2/2n) and dependent Student t test (P <0.05), respectively. Tooth symmetry was investigated through a paired-samples t test (P <0.05) and sex difference via an independent-samples t test (P <0.05). After neither asymmetry nor sexual dimorphism was found, all data were pooled, inverting the signs of the X coordinates and then mirroring data. Subsequently, a 2-samples t test (P <0.05) and a multivariate cluster analysis were performed on the mirrored data to compare the 2 groups and to identify any within-group diversity for number of clusters for each tooth. Means of all linear measurements and coordinates (crown height and width) calculated for each cluster were reported and compared using a standard 2-samples t test (P <0.05).
RESULTS: Two clusters were identified for the maxillary second premolars and molars in Italian subjects, whereas in the Mozambican subjects, there were 2 clusters for the maxillary first premolars and lateral incisors and 3 clusters for the maxillary canines and central incisors. The mandibular arch was remarkably homogeneous, with only 1 cluster per tooth in each group. In the mandibular arch, statistical differences were recorded between ethnic groups in crown height at the central incisors and second molars and in crown width in the sector from the second premolar to the second molar.
CONCLUSIONS: There were considerable differences both between and within racial groups in crown height, crown width, and numbers of clusters, which should be taken into account during bonding. Although single-bracket placement guides specific for ethnicity may be feasible for the mandibular arch, the significant diversity in number of clusters in the maxillary arch indicates that more accurate bracket placement guides that take into account such heterogeneity are required.