J Orofac Orthop. 2019 Mar;80(2):57-67. doi: 10.1007/s00056-018-00164-4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.
AIMS: Mechanical properties along the length of latest generation “multi-force” archwires were measured and compare with commercially available thermally activated and non-thermally activated nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A modified deflection test was used to produce load/deflection curves for different positions along the lengths of a sample of 114 NiTi archwires composed by thermal NiTi, non-thermal NiTi, two types of multi-force NiTi and one type of multi-force copper archwires of various cross-sections (0.016 × 0.016 inch, 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.018 × 0.025 inch and 0.019 × 0.025 inch). The length, slope and mean force expressed were calculated from the resulting unloading plateaus, enabling comparison between types of archwire at different points along their lengths.
RESULTS: Among conventional thermal, conventional nonthermal and multiforce archwires, all parameters investigated were statistically different, whereby the performance of the latter was superior. Multi-force archwires displayed 27% and 31% lighter mean forces in the upper and lower arches, respectively, in addition to 62% and 40% reductions in unloading plateau slope and length, respectively, as compared to conventional CuNiTi wires. Comparison of the different types of multi-force wires tested revealed statistically significant differences in the three parameters, depending on the testing position but irrespective of their cross-section.
CONCLUSIONS: Although conventional archwires display identical behaviour along their lengths, as advertised the multi-force archwires do indeed exert a progressive force which differs between anterior, medial and posterior sections. The multi-force wires provide lighter, more prolonged and constant forces than conventional wires without cross-section-dependent variation.